Christina Maslach is Professor of Psychology at the University of California at Berkeley. She received her A.B., magna cum laude, in Social Relations from Harvard-Radcliffe College in 1967, and her Ph.D. in Psychology from Stanford University in 1971. She has conducted research in a number of areas within social and health psychology. However, she is best known as one of the pioneering researchers on job burnout, and the author of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the most widely used research measure in the burnout field. In addition to numerous articles, her books on this topic include Burnout: The Cost of Caring; the co-edited volume, Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research (with Wilmar Schaufeli); The Truth About Burnout (with Michael Leiter); Preventing Burnout and Building Engagement: A Complete Program for Organizational Renewal (with Michael Leiter), and Banishing Burnout: Six Strategies for Improving Your Relationship with Work (with Michael Leiter). The latter publications are based on Professor Maslach's work as a consultant with various organizations on issues of job burnout.
In 1997, Professor Maslach received national recognition as "Professor of the Year", an award made by the Carnegie Foundation and the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). Among Professor Maslach's other honors are the presidency of the Western Psychological Association; the Distinguished Teaching Award, the Faculty Service Award, and the Berkeley Citation (Berkeley's highest honor) from the University of California at Berkeley; and her selection as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (which cited her "For groundbreaking work on the applications of social psychology to contemporary problems").
Professor Maslach's administrative positions include Faculty Assistant (to the Chancellor) on the Status of Women, and Vice-Chair of the Psychology Department. Previously, she chaired the Chancellor's Commission on Responses to a Changing Student Body and wrote its final report, "Promoting Student Success at Berkeley" (more popularly known as the Maslach Report). She was the Vice-Chair of the Faculty Senate at Berkeley in 1999-2000, and served as Chair in 2000. She will serve again as Faculty Vice-Chair and Chair in 2011-13. From 2001-2009 she served as the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, and then as the Vice Provost for Teaching and Learning.
My research interests are focused in two major areas: (a) burnout and job stress, and (b) individuation and social influence. An important cross-cutting theme in my recent work is health psychology (and, to a lesser extent, gender roles). My basic approach to research has always been a more broad-based one that integrates both personality and situational variables. I have also been committed to using several different research paradigms in my work. Finally, I have tried to promote cross-national research on burnout and individuation, either by myself or by others.
My current work is focusing on the development of a conceptual model of the burnout process, which articulates the key relationships between personal, social, and contextual variables. Here I am taking an approach to assessing the interaction between person and situation variables in the workplace. I have identified six core dimensions on which there can be a significant mismatch between the person and the workplace, all of which predict higher levels of burnout (these six areas are assessed by the Areas of Worklife Scale). I am focusing on the positive antithesis of burnout, work engagement, as a better framework for developing interventions. I have conducted sveral longitudinal assessments of burnout and engagement, which are providing opportunities to test both new research hypotheses and new intervention processes. I am also working actively with colleagues in China and Latin America, to establish standard translations of the MBI and other measures, so that we can develop a robust program of cross-cultural research.
The recent directions for my work on individuation stem largely from the pattern of results that emerged in a study using archival data. Rather than simply emphasizing the personality factors linked to individuating behaviors (which was the focus of my earliest cross-national research), the findings point to the value of framing these individual behaviors in terms of their social influence. Thus, I have begun to conceptualize individuation not just in terms of "differentness" (and people's willingness to be so), but in terms of "high social impact." This has led to a number of hypotheses with regard to leadership and social influence, some of which are being tested in field settings. Most recently, my graduate students and I have begun to explore the meaning of individuation and differentness in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures.
- Applied Social Psychology
- Culture and Ethnicity
- Gender Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Interpersonal Processes
- Organizational Behavior
- Personality, Individual Differences
- Persuasion, Social Influence
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- Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2005). Banishing burnout: Six strategies for improving your relationship with work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [Translated into Dutch, Swedish, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, Italian, German, Greek, Slovenian, Estonian, French]
- Maslach, C. (2011). Engagement research: Some thoughts from a burnout perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20, 47-52.
- Goncalo, J. A., Polman, E., & Maslach, C. (2010). Can confidence come too soon? Collective efficacy, conflict and group performance over time. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 113, 13-24.
- Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Nurse turnover: The mediating role of burnout. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 331-339.
- Boucher, H. C., & Maslach, C. (2009). Culture and individuation: The role of norms and self-construals. Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 677-693.
- Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498-512.
- Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 189-192.
- Kwan, V. S. Y., Bond, M. H., Boucher, H., Maslach, C., & Gan, Y. (2002). The construct of individuation: More complex in collectivist than in individualist cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 300-310.
- Reevy, G. M., & Maslach, C. (2001). People's use of social support: Gender and personality differences. Sex Roles, 44, 437-459.
- Maslach, C., & Goldberg, J. (1998). Prevention of burnout: New perspectives. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 63-74.
- Jenkins, S. R., & Maslach, C. (1994). Psychological health and involvement in interpersonally demanding occupations: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 101-127.
- Whitney, K., Sagrestano, L. M., & Maslach, C. (1994). Establishing the social impact of individuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1140-1153.
- Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. In S. T. Fiske, D. L. Schacter, & C. Zahn-Waxler (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology (Vol. 52, pp. 397-422).
- Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2004). Areas of worklife: A structured approach to organizational predictors of job burnout. In P. L. Perrewe & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Research in Occupational Stress and Well-Being (Vol. 3, 91-134). Oxford: Elsevier.
- Maslach, C., Leiter, M. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Measuring burnout. In C. L. Cooper & S. Cartwright (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of organizational well-being (86-108). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
- Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. All versions of the MBI, and the Manual, are now available at Mind Garden, mindgarden.com
- Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2005). Stress and burnout: The critical research. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Handbook of stress medicine and health, 2nd ed. (153-170). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC.
Department of Psychology
3210 Tolman Hall
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-1650
- Phone: (510) 642-5292
- Fax: (510) 642-5293